By Georges Roux
Newly revised and containing details from fresh excavations and chanced on artifacts, Ancient Iraq covers the political, cultural, and socio-economic historical past from Mesopotamia days of prehistory to the Christian period.
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Additional info for Ancient Iraq: Third Edition
IN SEARCH OF THE PAST The Buried Cities of Iraq Dating the Past Archaeological Research in Iraq 3. FROM CAVE TO FARM Palaeolithic Mesolithic Neolithic 4. FROM VILLAGE TO CITY The Hassuna Period The Samarra Period The Halaf Period The Ubaid Period 5. BIRTH OF A CIVILIZATION The Uruk Period The Jemdat Nasr Period The Sumerian Problem 6. THE GODS OF SUMER The Sumerian Pantheon Tales of Creation Life, Death and Destiny 7. AN AGE OF HEROES From ‘Adam’ to the Deluge The Great Flood Dynasties of Supermen The Story of Gilgamesh 8.
The first road started from Sippar (near Fallujah, at the latitude of Baghdad), followed the Euphrates as far as Mari or some other market-place in the Abu-Kemal–Deir-ez-Zor area, and, cutting straight through the desert via Tidmur (Palmyra), reached the region of Horns, where it divided into several branches to the Phoenician ports, Damascus or Palestine. The crossing of the desert – there no more than 500 kilometres wide – was inconvenient in summer and exposed at all times to attacks from the nomads; caravans and armies, therefore, usually preferred the second road, much longer but safer and well provided with water and fodder.
Whenever desirable, digging is pushed in depth underneath the uppermost and consequently more recent buildings, which are destroyed in order to bring older buildings to light. In one or more points a shaft or ‘test-pit’ may be sunk down to the virgin soil, giving a cross-section of the mound, a summary as it were of its various occupation levels. Some parts of the site remain, of necessity, untouched, but this is of little importance if the main monuments such as temples and palaces and a selection of private houses have been unearthed.