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By Deon Liles

This ebook offers an Introductory method of Human Evolution.

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The observation that the mtMRCA is the direct matrilineal ancestor of all living humans does not mean either that she was the first anatomically modern human, nor that no other female humans lived concurrently with her. Other women would have lived at the same time and passed nuclear genes down to living humans, but their mitochondrial lineages were lost over time. This could be due to random events such as producing only male children. African origin for modern humans There is evidence that modern human mtDNA has an African origin: "We infer from the tree of minimum length...

The observation that the mtMRCA is the direct matrilineal ancestor of all living humans does not mean either that she was the first anatomically modern human, nor that no other female humans lived concurrently with her. Other women would have lived at the same time and passed nuclear genes down to living humans, but their mitochondrial lineages were lost over time. This could be due to random events such as producing only male children. African origin for modern humans There is evidence that modern human mtDNA has an African origin: "We infer from the tree of minimum length...

According to genetic and fossil evidence, archaic Homo sapiens evolved to anatomically modern humans solely in Africa, between 200,000 and 100,000 years ago, with members of one branch leaving Africa by 60,000 years ago and over time replacing earlier human populations such as Neanderthals and Homo erectus. The recent single origin of modern humans in East Africa was the near-consensus position held within the scientific community until 2010. However, recent sequencing of autosomal DNA from neanderthals and from an archaic human from denisova suggest that these populations, which were already outside of Africa at the posited time of the recent African human origin, also contributed to the modern human gene pool.

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