By D. W. Phillipson David W. Phillipson
David Phillipson offers an illustrated account of African prehistory, from the origins of humanity via ecu colonization during this revised and improved version of his unique paintings. Phillipson considers Egypt and North Africa of their African context, comprehensively reviewing the archaeology of West, East, valuable and Southern Africa. His e-book demonstrates the relevance of archaeological examine to realizing modern Africa and stresses the continent's contribution to the cultural historical past of humankind.
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Extra info for African Archaeology, Third Edition
Malawi R. Zambezi Makapansgat Sterkfontein Oran Taung g e R. R. Kromdraai Swartkrans al Va Rift Valley 0 0 1000 km 500 miles Fig. 11: The principal sites at which Australopithecus and Homo habilis fossils and/or well-dated Oldowan artefacts have been discovered of thirteen early hominids, including four juveniles, were found together. The most informative discovery, however, is a 40 per cent complete skeleton of a female, popularly known as Lucy. Her pelvis and leg bones indicate a well-developed upright posture.
More comprehensive and informative material comes from Hadar and the Middle Awash where lacustrine and river-delta deposits are separated by a series of volcanic tuffs. The arid conditions currently prevailing at these now low-lying sites have been brought about by subsequent Rift Valley earth movements. At one Hadar locality the remains The emergence of humankind in Africa 33 R . Ni le Hadar Middle Awash sites Omo West Turkana Lothagam Kanapoi ngo R. Co Koobi Fora L. Turkana Senga L. Victoria Olduvai Laetoli L.
The area around the lower Omo River, north of the lake in southern Ethiopia, was the ﬁrst to be investigated (Howell 1976), followed by intensive research in the Koobi Fora area on the northeast shore (M. G. and R. E. Leakey 1978; Wood 1991; Isaac 1997). The focus of research then shifted to the exceptionally signiﬁcant sites in the western part of the basin (J. M. Harris et al. 1988). At times between 4 and 2 million years ago the area drained to the Indian Ocean, but both before and afterwards it has comprised a closed basin with no outlet except an overﬂow channel to the Nile which functions only when the Lake Turkana waters reach a very high level (Butzer 1980; Harvey and Grove 1982).